City primarily in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. A portion of the central and eastern section of the city is in Santa Fe County. Founded as a capital for Nuevo México in 1598 as San Juan de los Caballeros, it was renamed Española in 1880 when it became a railroad village, the city was officially incorporated in 1925. It has been called the first capital city in the United States
Alamosa was established in May 1878 by the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad and quickly became an important rail center. The railroad had an extensive construction, repair and shipping facility in Alamosa for many years and headquartered its remaining narrow gauge service here with trackage reaching many points throughout southwest Colorado and northern New Mexico. Alamosa is now a notable tourist town with many nearby attractions, including the Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado Gators Reptile Park and the Rio Grande Scenic Railroad. The town hosts "Summer Fest on the Rio" which occurs the first weekend in June, the Early Iron car show over the Labor Day weekend, and "Weekends on the Rio" on various Sundays throughout the summer. The city takes its name from the Spanish adjective Alamosa, meaning "of cottonwood", for the cottonwood forests which grow along the Rio Grande and throughout town.
Buena Vista, CO
The Arkansas River Valley and the area of what would become Buena Vista was first settled in 1864 by settlers drawn to the area by the plentiful water which made the land suitable for agriculture. By 1880, the county seat had moved from Granite to Buena Vista, but by 1928 Salida had a larger population so the county seat was moved once again. By 1894, Buena Vista had electricity, telephone service, street lights, parks, cemeteries, and schools. Travelers, speculators, and miners traveling up the Arkansas Valley towards Leadville made Buena Vista a popular stagecoach stop, and railroad depot following the 1890s. While certainly experiencing economic ups and downs, the valley's agricultural economy has made the area more resistant to the 'boom, bust' cycle of mining towns.
Buena Vista is located in central Colorado roughly midway between Salida and Leadville in the Upper Arkansas River Valley at an elevation of 7,965 feet (2,428 m). The area between Buena Vista and Salida is often referred to as the Denver & Rio Grande, South Park & Pacific, and Colorado Midland railroads. Many of the existing buildings of Buena Vista date back to this era, and were built in the 1880s and 1890s.The name "Buena Vista", Spanish for "Good View”.
A former silver mining town that lies among the headwaters of the Arkansas River in the heart of the Rocky Mountains, the Leadville Historic District contains many historic structures and sites in its dynamic mining era. In the late 19th century, Leadville was the second most populous city in Colorado, after Denver. Leadville is notable for having many 14,000 foot peaks viewable from town. Leadville is situated at an elevation of 10,152 feet (3,094 m).
The Town of Frisco is a Home Rule Municipality in Summit County, Colorado. The population was 2,683 at the 2010 census. It is a popular town among skiers from around the world. Four major ski resorts are located in close proximity to Frisco: Copper Mountain, Breckenridge, Keystone, and Arapahoe Basin.
The town was named for Judge Marshall Silverthorn who served as the judge of the miner's court in Breckenridge. The judge first came to town as a prospector and claimed a section of the Blue River in 1881. After patenting his claim in April 1882, he was disappointed to find the gold to be sparse and the claim a poor bet. The land passed to his daughters on his death in 1887 and was then sold several times to various mining companies. In 1953 Clayton Hill bought the property and subdivided it for homes and stores.
Silverthorne served as a makeshift camp for workers during the construction of the Dillon Reservoir from 1961–1963, and later as a stop along Interstate 70. It was eventually incorporated on April 5, 1967.
The city has expanded several times since incorporation by annexation.
Since 2016, the town of Silverthorne has hosted the Silverthon Games, an annual competition featuring a seasonally-based slate of individual and team events, culminating with the heavily-spectated Hummingbird Circle race.
Granby is a statutory town. It is the most populous municipality in Grand County, Colorado, United States. Granby is situated along U.S. Highway 40 in the Middle Park basin, and it is about 85 miles (137 km) northwest of Denver and 14 miles (23 km) southwest of Rocky Mountain National Park. As of the 2010 census the town had a population of 1,864.
The town was founded in 1904 along the route of the Denver, Northwestern & Pacific Railway and was incorporated one year later. It was named after Granby Hillyer, a Denver lawyer who later served as the United States Attorney for that city's district. The town is best known in modern times for Marvin Heemeyer's rampage in a custom build bulldozer, dubbed the "Killdozer", during which he caused $7 million in property damage, following a dispute with local officials.
The Wyoming State Penitentiary is a historic and current prison in Rawlins, Carbon County, Wyoming, which has operated from 1901. It moved within Rawlins to a new location in 1981. In 2018, it is a Wyoming Department of Corrections state maximum-security prison for men.
Wyoming State Penitentiary is also the location of the state's death row and execution chamber, which is located in the prison's parole board meeting room. No death sentences have been carried out in Wyoming since the 1992 execution of convicted murderer Mark Hopkinson, and, in 2018, there were no inmates on death row.
Wyoming State Penitentiary District, at 6th and Walnut Streets in Rawlins, Wyoming, is a historic district that was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. The listing included 14 contributing buildings.
The listing included the original Administration Building, which is a large stone structure designed by Salt Lake City architect Walter E. Ware and built in stages during the 1890s. The design is generally Romanesque in style, including in its type of stonework and features such as a semicircular arch, vermiculated stone sills, short columns with foliated capitals, and cone-shaped roofs on its tower. It was completed in 1901. The 1901 building is now a museum called the Wyoming Frontier Prison. Visitors can go on guided tours through the old prison. There are exhibits about the old and current prisons and the Wyoming Peace Officers' Museum.
The Ware-designed prison operated for 80 years. Convict Henry Ruhl was executed there in 1945, the only person executed by the U.S. Federal Government in Wyoming. This facility closed as a prison in 1981 when replaced by the current location.
Its current complex which opened in 1980 at first housed about 500 medium-security prisoners. The original portion of the complex, now called the North Facility, closed in 2001 as the newer South Facility opened. The South Facility boasts the third generation prison layout of 'pods.' A driving factor behind this was the faults with the star, or block, layout of the North Facility. Narrow halls and blind, sharp corners caused dangers to staff. Security issues of the old North Facility came to light when Corporal Wayne Martinez was killed by three inmates. The three inmates gained access to the control center Corporal Martinez was in, beating him with a fire extinguisher and stabbing him over thirty times. Two inmates involved in the attack were given life without the possibility of parole, while the third was sentenced to death. In memory of Corporal Martinez, the Wayne Martinez Training Center was given his name. The North Facility remains standing, but abandoned.
The seat of Chaves County in New Mexico, the county forms the entirety of the Roswell micropolitan area, it is the fifth-largest city in New Mexico. It is home of New Mexico Military Institute (NMMI), founded in 1891. The city is also the location of an Eastern New Mexico University campus. Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge is located a few miles northeast of the city on the Pecos River. Bottomless Lakes State Park is located 12 miles (19 km) east of Roswell on US 380.
The Roswell UFO incident was named after the town, though the crash site of the alleged UFO was some 75 miles (121 km) from Roswell and closer to Corona. The investigation and debris recovery was handled by the local Roswell Army Air Field. In the 1930s, Roswell was a site for much of Robert H. Goddard's early rocketry work. The Roswell Museum and Art Center maintains an exhibit that includes a recreation of Goddard's rocket engine development workshop.
Santa Fe, NM
The capital of the U.S. state of New Mexico, it is the fourth-largest city in New Mexico with a population of 84,683 in 2019. It is the county seat of Santa Fe County and it is the oldest state capital in the United States. With an elevation of 7,199 feet (2,194 m), it is also the state capital with the highest elevation. It is considered one of the world's great art cities, due to its many art galleries and installations, and is recognized by UNESCO's Creative Cities Network. Among the numerous art galleries and installations are, for example, Georgia O'Keeffe Museum is located in the city, as is a gallery by cartoonist Chuck Jones, along with newer art collectives such as Meow Wolf. The area surrounding Santa Fe was occupied for at least several thousand years by indigenous peoples who built villages several hundred years ago on the current site of the city. It was known by the Tewa inhabitants as Ogha Po'oge ("White Shell Water Place"). The name of the city of Santa Fe means "holy faith" in Spanish, and the city's full name as founded remains La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís ("The Royal Town of the Holy Faith of Saint Francis of Assisi").
The town of Riverton is located along the Big Wind River in the center of nearly a half million acre tract withdrawn from the Wind River Indian Reservation for homesteading. Founded in 1906, Riverton is now the center of a prosperous agricultural area and lies at the confluence of the Big and Little Wind rivers. The community was named Riverton because of the four rivers that meet there. The town was placed in a natural basin that had long been a gathering point for humans from Native Americans since pre-history to the 1830 and 1838 mountain man rendezvous.
Lander is the county seat of Fremont County, named for Frederick W. Lander, a transcontinental explorer who surveyed the Oregon Trail's Lander Cutoff. Lander is located in central Wyoming, along the Middle Fork of the Popo Agie River. A tourism center with several guest ranches nearby, Lander is located just south of the Wind River Indian Reservation. Lander was known as Pushroot, Old Camp Brown, and Fort Augur prior to its current name.
Sinks Canyon State Park
Sinks Canyon State Park is a public recreation and nature preservation area located in the Wind River Mountains, six miles (9.7 km) southwest of Lander, Wyoming, on Wyoming Highway 131. The state park is named for a portion of the Middle Fork of the Popo Agie River where it flows into an underground limestone cavern, named "the Sinks," and emerges a quarter-mile down the canyon in a pool named "the Rise." The park is managed by the Wyoming Division of State Parks and Historic Sites. Human activity in Sinks Canyon goes back thousands of years. Archaeological digs have found hearths and tools carbon dated as far back as the last ice age. Since the late 19th century, the canyon and its river have been utilized for a variety of purposes. A saw mill, small hydroelectric dam and power plant, and ski area have all operated in the canyon.
Thermopolis is from the Greek for "Hot City". It is home to numerous natural hot springs, in which mineral-laden waters are heated by geothermal processes. The town is named for the hot springs located there.
The town claims the world's largest mineral hot spring, appropriately named "The Big Spring", as part of Wyoming's Hot Springs State Park. The springs are open to the public for free as part of an 1896 treaty signed with the Shoshone and Arapaho Indian tribes.
Dinosaur fossils were found on the Warm Springs Ranch in 1993, and the Wyoming Dinosaur Center was founded soon after.
Thermopolis is located near the northern end of the Wind River Canyon and Wedding of the Waters, where the north-flowing Wind River becomes the Bighorn River. It is an unusual instance of a river changing names at a point other than a confluence of two streams. The dual name is ascribed to the mountain barrier between the Wind River and Bighorn basins, obscuring the fact that the river that drains the two is the same. The term "Wedding of the Waters" dates to at least 1934, when a marker was placed at the location.
A large body of water, Boysen Reservoir, lies approximately 17 miles south of Thermopolis and is inhabited by many species of fish including rainbow trout, cutthroat trout, brown trout, walleye, northern pike and perch among others.
Wind River Canyon
Wind River Canyon is a scenic Wyoming canyon on the Wind River. It is located between the towns of Shoshoni and Thermopolis and is a popular stop for visitors to Yellowstone National Park. The scenic route offers views of the canyon and landmark natural structures like the Chimney Rock. The southern mouth of the canyon is near the Boysen Dam in Boysen State Park several miles north of, and about half a mile east of, the state park's borders with the Wind River Indian Reservation.
Boysen Reservoir is a reservoir formed by Boysen Dam, an earth-fill dam on the Wind River in the central part of the U.S. state of Wyoming. It is near the town of Shoshoni in Fremont County. The dam was constructed between 1947 and 1952 at the mouth of Wind River Canyon, just upstream from a previous dam that had been built by Asmus Boysen in 1908 on land he had leased from the Shoshone and Arapaho tribes. The dam and much of the reservoir are physically located on the Wind River Indian Reservation.
Surrounding the reservoir is Boysen State Park, it includes 11 campgrounds spread around the reservoir and nearby area. The reservoir is a popular sporting area with numerous species of fish including walleye, perch, crappie, channel catfish, as well as rainbow and brown trout and several other species. Boysen Marina sits near the shore on the northeast side of the reservoir and has a bait shop and cafe and offers boat and jet ski rentals.
The first dam to be built at the Wind River Canyon site was actually in 1908, when Asmus Boysen supervised the construction of a small concrete run-of-the-river structure that generated 710 kilowatts of electricity. This early dam, located just downriver of the present Boysen Dam, silted up by 1925 and was removed in 1948. As early as 1904, the Bureau of Reclamation also made investigative forays into the area for the construction of a dam, although a final report was not completed until 1942. Initially, by a suggestion of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Boysen Dam would be built right over the site of the old dam, but the location was changed to about one and a half miles (2.4 km) upstream in order to reduce cost.
Boysen Dam is an earth and rock fill structure 220 feet (67 m) high from the foundations and 1,143 ft (348 m) long. The hydraulic head is only about 117 ft (36 m) because of the great depth to bedrock from the riverbed, thus necessitating a large amount of excavation for the dam foundations. The reservoir has a storage capacity of 952,400 acre feet (1.1748 km3), of which 520,679 acre⋅ft (0.642248 km3) is reserved for annual flood storage and 144,229 acre⋅ft (0.177904 km3) for agricultural and municipal uses. The dam provides electricity for regions of Wyoming ranging from Alcova to Thermopolis.
The dam also serves an important purpose of flood control, and has prevented about $75 million of damages from its completion to 1998. Its spillway is a concrete lined, over the crest structure controlled by two radial gates with a capacity of 25,000 cubic feet per second (710 m3/s).